Bhagavad-gita Slok 2-15 भगवत गीता श्लोक 2-15



sanjaya uvaca

drstva tu pandavanikam

vyudham duryodhanas tada

acaryam upasangamya

raja vacanam abravit


sanjayah–Sanjaya; uvaca–said; drstva–after seeing; tu–but; pandavaanikam–the

soldiers of the Pandavas; vyudham–arranged in military

phalanx; duryodhanah–King Duryodhana; tada–at that time; acaryam–the

teacher; upasangamya–approaching nearby; raja–the king; vacanam–

words; abravit–spoke.


Sanjaya said: O King, after looking over the army gathered by the sons

of Pandu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and began to speak the

following words:


Dhrtarastra was blind from birth. Unfortunately, he was also bereft of

spiritual vision. He knew very well that his sons were equally blind in

the matter of religion, and he was sure that they could never reach an

understanding with the Pandavas, who were all pious since birth. Still

he was doubtful about the influence of the place of pilgrimage, and

Sanjaya could understand his motive in asking about the situation on

the battlefield. He wanted, therefore, to encourage the despondent

king, and thus he warned him that his sons were not going to make any

sort of compromise under the influence of the holy place. Sanjaya

therefore informed the king that his son, Duryodhana, after seeing the

military force of the Pandavas, at once went to the commander in chief,

Dronacarya, to inform him of the real position. Although Duryodhana is

mentioned as the king, he still had to go to the commander on account

of the seriousness of the situation. He was therefore quite fit to be a

politician. But Duryodhana’s diplomatic veneer could not disguise the

fear he felt when he saw the military arrangement of the Pandavas.


pasyaitam pandu-putranam

acarya mahatim camum

vyudham drupada-putrena

tava sisyena dhimata


pasya–behold; etam–this; pandu-putranam–of the sons of Pandu;

acarya–O teacher; mahatim–great; camum–military force; vyudham–

arranged; drupada-putrena–by the son of Drupada; tava–your; sisyena–

disciple; dhi-mata–very intelligent.


O my teacher, behold the great army of the sons of Pandu, so expertly

arranged by your intelligent disciple, the son of Drupada.


Duryodhana, a great diplomat, wanted to point out the defects of

Dronacarya, the great brahmana commander in chief. Dronacarya had some

political quarrel with King Drupada, the father of Draupadi, who was

Arjuna’s wife. As a result of this quarrel, Drupada performed a great

sacrifice, by which he received the benediction of having a son who

would be able to kill Dronacarya. Dronacarya knew this perfectly well,

and yet, as a liberal brahmana, he did not hesitate to impart all his

military secrets when the son of Drupada, Dhrstadyumna, was entrusted

to him for military education. Now, on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra,

Dhrstadyumna took the side of the Pandavas, and it was he who arranged

for their military phalanx, after having learned the art from

Dronacarya. Duryodhana pointed out this mistake of Dronacarya’s so that

he might be alert and uncompromising in the fighting. By this he wanted

to point out also that he should not be similarly lenient in battle

against the Pandavas, who were also Dronacarya’s affectionate students.

Arjuna, especially, was his most affectionate and brilliant student.

Duryodhana also warned that such leniency in the fight would lead to



atra sura mahesvasa

bhimarjuna-sama yudhi

yuyudhano viratas ca

drupadas ca maha-rathah


atra–here; surah–heroes; maha-isu-asah–mighty bowmen; bhima-arjuna–

Bhima and Arjuna; samah–equal; yudhi–in the fight; yuyudhanah–

Yuyudhana; viratah–Virata; ca–also; drupadah–Drupada; ca–also;

maha-rathah–great fighter.


Here in this army there are many heroic bowmen equal in fighting to

Bhima and Arjuna; there are also great fighters like Yuyudhana, Virata

and Drupada.


Even though Dhrstadyumna was not a very important obstacle in the face

of Dronacarya’s very great power in the military art, there were many

others who were the cause of fear. They are mentioned by Duryodhana as

great stumbling blocks on the path of victory because each and every

one of them was as formidable as Bhima and Arjuna. He knew the strength

of Bhima and Arjuna, and thus he compared the others with them.


dhrstaketus cekitanah

kasirajas ca viryavan

purujit kuntibhojas ca

saibyas ca nara-pungavah


dhrstaketuh–Dhrstaketu; cekitanah–Cekitana; kasirajah–Kasiraja; ca–

also; virya-van–very powerful; purujit–Purujit; kuntibhojah–

Kuntibhoja; ca–and; saibyah–Saibya; ca–and; nara-pungavah–heroes in

human society.


There are also great, heroic, powerful fighters like Dhrstaketu,

Cekitana, Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya.


yudhamanyus ca vikranta

uttamaujas ca viryavan

saubhadro draupadeyas ca

sarva eva maha-rathah


yudhamanyuh–Yudhamanyu; ca–and; vikrantah–mighty; uttamaujah–

Uttamauja; ca–and; virya-van–very powerful; saubhadrah–the son of

Subhadra; draupadeyah–the sons of Draupadi; ca–and; sarve–all; eva–

certainly; maha-rathah–great chariot fighters.


There are the mighty Yudhamanyu, the very powerful Uttamauja, the son

of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi. All these warriors are great

chariot fighters.


asmakam tu visista ye

tan nibodha dvijottama

nayaka mama sainyasya

samjnartham tan bravimi te


asmakam–our; tu–but; visistah–especially powerful; ye–those; tan–

them; nibodha–just take note, be informed; dvija-uttama–the best of

the brahmanas; nayakah–captains; mama–my; sainyasya–of the soldiers;

samjna-artham–for information; tan–them; bravimi–I am speaking; te–



O best of the brahmanas, for your information, let me tell you about

the captains who are especially qualified to lead my military force.


bhavan bhismas ca karnas ca

krpas ca samitim-jayah

asvatthama vikarnas ca

saumadattis tathaiva ca


bhavan–your self; bhismah–Grandfather Bhisma; ca–also; karnah–

Karna; ca–and; krpah–Krpa; ca–and; samitim-jayah–always victorious

in battle; asvatthama–Asvatthama; vikarnah–Vikarna; ca–as well as;

saumadattih–the son of Somadatta; tatha–and as; eva–certainly; ca–



There are personalities like yourself, Bhisma, Karna, Krpa, Asvatthama,

Vikarna and the son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava, who are always

victorious in battle.


Duryodhana mentions the exceptional heroes in the battle, all of whom

are ever victorious. Vikarna is the brother of Duryodhana, Asvatthama

is the son of Dronacarya, and Saumadatti, or Bhurisrava, is the son of

the King of the Bahlikas. Karna is the half brother of Arjuna, as he

was born of Kunti before her marriage with King Pandu. Krpacarya’s twin

sister married Dronacarya.


anye ca bahavah sura

mad-arthe tyakta-jivitah


sarve yuddha-visaradah


anye–many others; ca–also; bahavah–in great numbers; surah–heroes;

mat-arthe–for my sake; tyakta-jivitah–prepared to risk life; nana–

many; sastra–weapons; praharanah–equipped with; sarve–all of them;

yuddha–battle; visaradah–experienced in military science.


There are many other heroes who are prepared to lay down their lives

for my sake. All of them are well equipped with different kinds of

weapons, and all are experienced in military science.


As far as the others are concerned–like Jayadratha, Krtavarma, Salya,

etc.–all are determined to lay down their lives for Duryodhana’s sake.

In other words, it is already concluded that all of them would die in

the Battle of Kuruksetra for joining the party of the sinful

Duryodhana. Duryodhana was, of course, confident of his victory on

account of the above-mentioned combined strength of his friends.


aparyaptam tad asmakam

balam bhismabhiraksitam

paryaptam tv idam etesam

balam bhimabhiraksitam


aparyaptam–immeasurable; tat–that; asmakam–of ours; balam–strength;

bhisma–by Grandfather Bhisma; abhiraksitam–perfectly protected;

paryaptam–limited; tu–but; idam–all this; etesam–of the Pandavas;

balam–strength; bhima–by Bhima; abhiraksitam–carefully protected.


Our strength is immeasurable, and we are perfectly protected by

Grandfather Bhisma, whereas the strength of the Pandavas, carefully

protected by Bhima, is limited.


Herein an estimation of comparative strength is made by Duryodhana. He

thinks that the strength of his armed forces is immeasurable, being

specifically protected by the most experienced general, Grandfather

Bhisma. On the other hand, the forces of the Pandavas are limited,

being protected by a less experienced general, Bhima, who is like a fig

in the presence of Bhisma. Duryodhana was always envious of Bhima

because he knew perfectly well that if he should die at all, he would

only be killed by Bhima. But at the same time, he was confident of his

victory on account of the presence of Bhisma, who was a far superior

general. His conclusion that he would come out of the battle victorious

was well ascertained.


ayanesu ca sarvesu

yatha-bhagam avasthitah

bhismam evabhiraksantu

bhavantah sarva eva hi


ayanesu–in the strategic points; ca–also; sarvesu–everywhere; yathabhagam–as

they are differently arranged; avasthitah–situated;

bhismam–unto Grandfather Bhisma; eva–certainly; abhiraksantu–support

may be given; bhavantah–all of you; sarve–respectively; eva–

certainly; hi–and exactly.


Now all of you must give full support to Grandfather Bhisma, standing

at your respective strategic points in the phalanx of the army.


Duryodhana, after praising the prowess of Bhisma, further considered

that others might think that they had been considered less important,

so in his usual diplomatic way, he tried to adjust the situation in the

above words. He emphasized that Bhismadeva was undoubtedly the greatest

hero, but he was an old man, so everyone must especially think of his

protection from all sides. He might become engaged in the fight, and

the enemy might take advantage of his full engagement on one side.

Therefore, it was important that other heroes would not leave their

strategic positions and allow the enemy to break the phalanx.

Duryodhana clearly felt that the victory of the Kurus depended on the

presence of Bhismadeva. He was confident of the full support of

Bhismadeva and Dronacarya in the battle because he well knew that they

did not even speak a word when Arjuna’s wife Draupadi, in her helpless

condition, had appealed to them for justice while she was being forced

to appear naked in the presence of all the great generals in the

assembly. Although he knew that the two generals had some sort of

affection for the Pandavas, he hoped that all such affection would now

be completely given up by them, as was customary during the gambling



tasya sanjanayan harsam

kuru-vrddhah pitamahah

simha-nadam vinadyoccaih

sankham dadhmau pratapavan


tasya–his; sanjanayan–increasing; harsam–cheerfulness; kuru-vrddhah-

-the grandsire of the Kuru dynasty (Bhisma); pitamahah–the

grandfather; simha-nadam–roaring sound, like a lion; vinadya–

vibrating; uccaih–very loudly; sankham–conchshell; dadhmau–blew;

pratapa-van–the valiant.


Then Bhisma, the great valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty, the

grandfather of the fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly, like the

sound of a lion, giving Duryodhana joy.


The grandsire of the Kuru dynasty could understand the inner meaning of

the heart of his grandson Duryodhana, and out of his natural compassion

for him he tried to cheer him by blowing his conchshell very loudly,

befitting his position as a lion. Indirectly, by the symbolism of the

conchshell, he informed his depressed grandson Duryodhana that he had

no chance of victory in the battle, because the Supreme Lord Krsna was

on the other side. But still, it was his duty to conduct the fight, and

no pains would be spared in that connection.


tatah sankhas ca bheryas ca



sa sabdas tumulo ‘bhavat


tatah–thereafter; sankhah–conchshells; ca–also; bheryah–bugles; ca-

-and; panava-anaka–trumpets and drums; go-mukhah–horns; sahasa–all

of a sudden; eva–certainly; abhyahanyanta–being simultaneously

sounded; sah–that; sabdah–combined sound; tumulah–tumultuous;



After that, the conchshells, bugles, trumpets, drums and horns were all

suddenly sounded, and the combined sound was tumultuous.


tatah svetair hayair yukte

mahati syandane sthitau

madhavah pandavas caiva

divyau sankhau pradadhmatuh


tatah–thereafter; svetaih–by white; hayaih–horses; yukte–being

yoked; mahati–in a great; syandane–chariot; sthitau–so situated;

madhavah–Krsna (the husband of the goddess of fortune); pandavah–

Arjuna (the son of Pandu); ca–also; eva–certainly; divyau–

transcendental; sankhau–conchshells; pradadhmatuh–sounded.


On the other side, both Lord Krsna and Arjuna, stationed on a great

chariot drawn by white horses, sounded their transcendental



In contrast with the conchshell blown by Bhismadeva, the conchshells in

the hands of Krsna and Arjuna are described as transcendental. The

sounding of the transcendental conchshells indicated that there was no

hope of victory for the other side because Krsna was on the side of the

Pandavas. Jayas tu pandu-putranam yesam pakse janardanah. Victory is

always with persons like the sons of Pandu because Lord Krsna is

associated with them. And whenever and wherever the Lord is present,

the goddess of fortune is also there because the goddess of fortune

never lives alone without her husband. Therefore, victory and fortune

were awaiting Arjuna, as indicated by the transcendental sound produced

by the conchshell of Visnu, or Lord Krsna. Besides that, the chariot on

which both the friends were seated was donated by Agni (the fire-god)

to Arjuna, and this indicated that this chariot was capable of

conquering all sides, wherever it was drawn over the three worlds.


pancajanyam hrsikeso

devadattam dhananjayah

paundram dadhmau maha-sankham

bhima-karma vrkodarah


pancajanyam–the conchshell named Pancajanya; hrsika-isah–Hrsikesa

(Krsna, the Lord who directs the senses of the devotees); devadattam–

the conchshell named Devadatta; dhanam-jayah–Dhananjaya (Arjuna, the

winner of wealth); paundram–the conch named Paundra; dadhmau–blew;

maha-sankham–the terrific conchshell; bhima-karma–one who performs

herculean tasks; vrka-udarah–the voracious eater (Bhima).


Then, Lord Krsna blew His conchshell, called Pancajanya; Arjuna blew

his, the Devadatta; and Bhima, the voracious eater and performer of

herculean tasks, blew his terrific conchshell called Paundra.


Lord Krsna is referred to as Hrsikesa in this verse because He is the

owner of all senses. The living entities are part and parcel of Him,

and, therefore the senses of the living entities are also part and

parcel of His senses. The impersonalists cannot account for the senses

of the living entities, and therefore they are always anxious to

describe all living entities as sense-less, or impersonal. The Lord,

situated in the hearts of all living entities, directs their senses.

But, He directs in terms of the surrender of the living entity, and in

the case of a pure devotee He directly controls the senses. Here on the

Battlefield of Kuruksetra the Lord directly controls the transcendental

senses of Arjuna, and thus His particular name of Hrsikesa. The Lord

has different names according to His different activities. For example,

His name is Madhusudana because He killed the demon of the name Madhu;

His name is Govinda because He gives pleasure to the cows and to the

senses; His name is Vasudeva because He appeared as the son of

Vasudeva; His name is Devaki-nandana because He accepted Devaki as His

mother; His name is Yasoda-nandana because He awarded His childhood

pastimes to Yasoda at Vrndavana; His name is Partha-sarathi because He

worked as charioteer of His friend Arjuna. Similarly, His name is

Hrsikesa because He gave direction to Arjuna on the Battlefield of


Arjuna is referred to as Dhananjaya in this verse because he helped his

elder brother in fetching wealth when it was required by the king to

make expenditures for different sacrifices. Similarly, Bhima is known

as Vrkodara because he could eat as voraciously as he could perform

herculean tasks, such as killing the demon Hidimba. So, the particular

types of conchshell blown by the different personalities on the side of

the Pandavas, beginning with the Lord’s, were all very encouraging to

the fighting soldiers. On the other side there were no such credits,

nor the presence of Lord Krsna, the supreme director, nor that of the

goddess of fortune. So, they were predestined to lose the battle–and

that was the message announced by the sounds of the conchshells.

इन्हें भी देखे: